Amit Paranjape’s Blog

High Definition Television (HDTV) Overview / HDTV in India

Posted in Current Affairs, Science & Technology, TV, Entertainment & Movies by Amit Paranjape on March 20, 2010

HD vs. Standard Resolution Comparison (image credit: Wikipedia)


(NOTE – To see a better impact of the comparison above, please go to the higher resolution image:      

Modern day High Definition Television (HDTV) began in Japan in the 1980s and in US/Europe in 1990s, but didn’t really get traction there and globally until the beginning of decade. As recently as 2002, there were only 3-4 ‘HD’ channels available in U.S. and even those had fairly limited HD Programming. I was one of the early adopters of HD (HD Ready TV and Set-Top Box Service Provider) in US in 2003. American Football (NFL) was one of the first sports to start airing some games in High Definition. Fast forward to present, and dozens (if not 100s) of HD channels are now available in the US. The old analog over-air broadcast technology has been long out of favor, compared to digital broadcasts through cable and satellite providers.             

HDTV has to be seen to be believed! Quantitatively it has over 5 times the resolution of normal TV. Qualitatively, its amazing! Today in India, HDTV coverage is still in a very nascent stage and in this blog post, I will make an attempt to provide an overview of the core technology, HD Ready TVs & Production/Distribution Equipment (hardware), and last, but not the least TV Programming (content).             

Transitioning from regular TV to HDTV is almost like the quantum jump felt by people in India when we transitioned from Black & White to Color Television in the 1980s! Myopics can understand this analogy the best: Remember when you get a new pair of glasses that corrects the power of you vision by 1-2  – how things look exceedingly crisp and clear for the first few days! You suddenly realize the vision sharpness you were missing. Well… watching HDTV for the first time is that kind of experience. Suddenly you realize that green patch on the ground that you are seeing on the TV  has distinct blades of grass..with dew drops. That huge stadium filled with blurry crowds are distinct faces…. That color complexion on a face is actually a freckle…that there is actually some small text written on that bottle in the kitchen.. that you couldn’t read before… I can go on and on with the examples..but I think you get the point!             

Unlike great progress made in areas like mobile phones, etc… India has been lagging the developed world in High Def TV. But there are some good signs of hope on the horizon.             

What is HDTV?             

HDTV stands for ‘High Definition TV’. TV resolution is usually measured in ‘lines’ (only recently did the notion of ‘pixel’ arrive…). Over the past 8 decades, TV images have been ‘created’ by scanning an electron beam onto a phosphorus-like material coated screen, to create lines at a fast rate to create a ‘picture’. These traditional TVs are also referred to as ‘CRTs’ (Cathode Ray Tube). Note that the human eye has an ‘inertia’ for image processing and if an image projected on the screen (principle used in motion picture) or scanned lines on a TV screen, change with a frequency of greater than 0.1 sec, then we ‘see’ a  ‘moving’ image. Traditional TV standards consist of pictures between 400-600 lines (Different Color Systems globally are a bit different: PAL that is used in India and in many EU countries uses 540 lines. NTSC used in North America uses 480 lines, etc.). Also note that in the 1930s, given the limitation of analog bandwidth and technology, a decision was made (that has stuck over all these years!) to go for a picture aspect ratio of 4:3. This was much ‘squarer’ than the 35 mm film aspect ratio in those days.             

HDTV changed the aspect ratio back to a more wide-angle movie like format to 16:9. The HDTV format has 1080 interspersed lines. (I will get into the 1080i vs 1080p discussion a bit later). With double the lines and greater ‘aspect ratio’ – the resolution of HDTV becomes much better than that of the conventional 480i(NTSC)/540i(PAL) 4:3 TV. In fact newer advances in HD (1080p, etc.) are realizing the dream of having motion picture level image quality on a TV Screen.             

What is 480i/540i/720p/1080i/1080p?             

Before I discuss the technology details, let me just say that its a sad sight to see all these HD Ready LCD TVs in Indian Stores/Homes with no HD Content! Think of Color TV Sets (actually this did happen in parts of India in the 1980s..) with Black & White Programming?!  I also get the same feeling seeing the fancy 6 cylinder BMWs/Audis/Mercs being driven on Indian Roads at 20kmph..but then thats a topic of a separate blog post 🙂             

As discussed earlier, in the old CRT TV set technology (540i for PAL, 480i for NTSC), lines were scanned by the electron beam. To reduce the bandwith requirement, a decision (again..many decades back) was made to scan the lines in an ‘interlaced’ fashion – in one pass only alternate lines are scanned 1-3-5…-537-539 and in the other pass 2-4-6…-538-540. This happens so fast that the viewer sees the full picture. But the resolution of this picture is approximately 1/2 of what it would have been if all the 540 lines were scanned simultaneously.  The HD standard of 1080i lines implies that the twice the number of lines are scanned in an interlaced manner. A new scanning approach that evolved with HDTV was that of ‘Progressive Scanning’. Here, all the lines are scanned in the same pass. Thus roughly speaking, a 540p scanned image is analogous to a 1080i image. (In actual practice, 720p image looks quite close to a 1080i image – and hence true HD is defined as 720p/1080i or higher).             

The first HDTVs were CRTs with a 1080i format (progressive scanning is quite tough in a CRT approach…but much easier in a flat screen where pixels are being used instead of an electron beam). Early LCD and Plasma TVs (until a few years back) didn’t have the necessary pixel count (manufacturing complexities, etc.) to to have 1080 lines vertically. Hence they settled on the 720p HD standard. However in the past few years, 1080p TVs have become common.             

HD TV Sets             

HD or non-HD TV Set? A few years back, this was a choice. Today (even in India) – there’s no choice! Almost all LCD/LED/Plasma/Projection/DLP TVs are HD Ready. Major companies have stopped making non-HD TVs (except in the sub 24inch CRT space…eventually these too would go away). In this section, I will provide a quick overview of the different HD TV Sets.             

CRT: The oldest technology format was used for HD in the 1990s and early 2000s. With a rear projection approach, the first big screen HD (and non-HD) TVs became a reality. However these are now virtually extinct.             

Plasma: Plasma TVs were the first big screen flat TVs to become popular 10 years back. Back then LCDs were not available in big sizes and also refreshed slowly. Plasmas had issues of burn-ins (static image getting burned in permanently onto the screen) and were very heavy (even though they were flat). While Plasma TVs have addressed these issues, they are getting replaced by LCDs.             

LCD: LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) TVs are today the most popular format for HDTVs. They have been able to address their earlier limitations of screen sizes and fast refresh rates, and contrast ratios. Now 1080p is quite common resolution available (1920X1080 pixels).             

LED: LED TVs represent the new exciting developments on top of LCD TVs – offering even brighter displays and contrast rations. With LED TVs – I doubt if there’s any rom left for Plasma TVs.             

DLP: The DLP technology and projection TV technology was developed by Texas Instruments earlier last decade. However, the rear projection screens are not flat and have lost out to LCDs/Plasmas. However DLP is still an excellent technology for HD Projection on big movie screens. In fact all digital motion pictures are being shown in some of the new Digital Theaters around the world using DLP Technology (No Film!).             


HD DVD Players             

Just to complete the picture, almost all the modern DVD players are ‘progressive scan’. This means that they deliver an output of 480p or 540p – much better than the 480i/540i standard broadcasts.
What is HD Content? Why is it not available             

Like any new technology, the primary constraints now are economic. Just as when the switch happened from Black & White to Color, the TV Cameras, the Processing, Transmission and Receivers and TV Sets had to change..the same applies for HDTV.             

Creating HD Content needs different higher resolution cameras and transmission equipment. Luckily for us in India, just as non-HD TVs increasingly getting rare, same applies to the Cameras and Studio Equipment as well.             

A big standards battle was being waged for many years in the HD DVD segment. Toshiba led HD-DVD and Sony led Blu-Ray standards went to head to head. This race brought the memories of the VHS vs. BetaMax standards race for the Video-Tape in the 1980s. Eventually Sony Blu-Ray won and is now the established standard for High Def DVDs.             

As I had mentioned earlier, 35mm Motion Picture resolution is close to (in fact a bit higher) than HD as in that sense, every movie is HD Ready  Content. It just needs to be converted into a DVD Format.             

HDTV in India             

As explained earlier, just having a HD TV Set doesn’t buy you anything (well..maybe a little better picture clarity than non-HD TVs..but no where near the 5-10x improvement).  Like any new technology, many satellite TV players were ‘planning’ HD Content in India for the past few years. As an HD enthusiast, I was following this with keen excitement. However it turns out that none of the big players – DishTV, TataSky, Airtel, etc. actually launched HD Content. SunTV became the first one to debut it recently.             

From the point of satellite / cable providers there are two implications. 1.  They need to get HD Content (Chicken-And-Egg problem in India..HDTV not available, hence no good HD Content..). A good workaround option is to go with good international HD Channels that are already available: DiscoveryHD, National Geographic HD, etc. 2.  They need to upgrade their processing equipment, satellite feeds and set-top boxes to support HDTV.             

Sun DTH (Direct-To-Home Satellite Provider) provides DiscoveryHD, National Geographic HD and a few other Indian HD Channels (Note – the Indian HD Channels still don’t have a lot of good HD Content..but atleast the vehicle is now there). The big catalyst for HDTV in India, in my view happened earlier this week when SunDTH announced that IPL Games will be available in HD!  I believe with the popularity of Cricket in India – this can be the watershed event for HDTV in India. I think there’s no looking back. The big players of satellite TV will now have to scramble and get their plans in order..and fast!             

I think with the latest TV equipment (cameras,etc.) being  used for coverage of IPL –  they were anyways producing the content in HD. The HD feeds were available for international markets (US/EU/ec.) through local tie-ups. They just had to (I guess..) partner with a local player willing to have the set-top boxes to stream this content to India.             

As a big fan of HDTV, I would definitely thank the IPL and SunDTH for being the pioneers in finally getting HDTV to India!             


Useful Links                     

HD broadcast is now available in India through Sun DTH:          

A Week In Netherlands

Posted in Travel by Amit Paranjape on October 8, 2009
Amsterdam Station
Amsterdam Station

Recently, I had a wonderful opportunity to visit the Netherlands. It’s interesting how you have an image in your mind about a place, a country – and then you see it for yourself for the first time. In my case, I can now say that I was fairly close.

Netherlands has its series of attractions and icons: some extremely famous, and others not so much. In this brief blog, I will make an attempt to highlight some that caught my attention during this brief stay. I really enjoyed my time and look forward to making another trip.

Food – Global Cuisine and Dutch Classics

Netherlands is not exactly known for food, but I had a great culinary experience. I guess Ham & Cheese Sandwich is to Holland, what Fish & Chips is to Britain. I loved the great variety of breads,sliced meats and cheeses. Dutch pancakes were also quite terrific –  different and a lot better than what you get in America.

Apart from the traditional Dutch food, what struck me was the wide variety of eclectic global cuisine that was available in Amsterdam and other smaller towns. I expected to see a lot of Indonesian restaurants in central Amsterdam, but was really surprised to see a huge number of Indian restaurants there as well! There were Chinese, Middle-Eastern, Turkish, Argentinean and many other cuisines represented.

In Europe, they serve great coffee. Even in a small town cafe, the Cappuccino was perfect. I guess this might be a problem for Starbucks to expand here.

Our hotel ‘The Golden Tulip – Lisse’  located in a small suburb Lisse, about 30 km from Amsterdam, also had a famous 100-year-old restaurant ‘De Nachtegaal’ that served a variety of different dishes, ranging from Dutch Pancakes, to Italian Pastas and Thai Sateys.


Bikes are one thing a first time visitor to Holland would expect; but the sheer numbers are astounding! Just look at the massive multi-storeyed bicycle-only parking lot next to the Amsterdam Central Train Station. Even in a small town like Lisse, you would see a swarm of bikes during the morning and evening rush hour. The riders include school kids from primary to high school, office goers, retirees, and from every other section of the society. 

Dedicated bike lanes definitely help and are clearly essential. Hotels (especially in suburbs) have bicycles available on rent. I was able to enjoy a nice 1 hour bike ride through Tulip country (No Tulips this time of the year!).

Given the amount of bike riding the Dutch do, I wouldn’t be surprised if their overall health ranks much better than most other countries in the world.


Windmills are probably the first thing that would come to mind when one thinks of Holland. They are not as omnipresent as one would think, but still you would see quite a few, especially in small towns. Many are not in a working state anymore, and a few have been converted into restaurants, galleries, etc. We had a nice dinner at one such restaurant ‘ d’Oude Molen ‘ (translates as: ‘The Old Mill) in a small town of Nieuw-Vennep.

Wind Mill

On expressway A4 leading south from Amsterdam towards Rotterdam, you do see some interesting contrasts of old windmills standing shoulder to shoulder with their modern airplane propellor like counterparts.

The Hague

Few cities carry such weight and seriousness in their name, as ‘The Hague’ (translated from ‘Den Haag’). But then this is a fairly unique place. The capital of the Netherlands, and the seat of many important international organizations – such as the International Criminal Court.

I didn’t spend too much time there, but did drive around a bit. The palace (I only saw it from outside) is very impressive. The beach boulevard near the palace is a very popular place for tourists and locals. A large number of casual beach restaurants are a big attraction. I had a good lunch at Waterreus.

This beach had an interesting historical photograph, prominently framed there. It showed the same view (with a lighthouse in the background – it is still there…) from 1944, with all the German fortifications – in preparation for defence against an Allied Landing.

Given its capital and international diplomatic hub status, The Hague has a lot of dignitaries visiting and living there. While driving by some apartments, I noticed an interesting parking sign – ‘This Parking Spot Is Reserved For The Ambassador Of Guatamala’!  I am not sure if they have similar reserved parking for every country’s ambassador (guess they should!) – it’s just that I saw only one such sign!


Another extremely popular Dutch export is Heineken. I noticed that in Netherlands – many restaurants just serve one kind of beer: Draft Heineken. They have a nice museum in Central Amsterdam called ‘Heineken Experience’. I have been to the Miller Brewery Museum in Milwaukee  (many years back) and found this to be a better experience.


If there’s one type of structure all Dutch people need to be eternally thankful towards, it’s a ‘Dike’ (also referred to as ‘Dyke’ or ‘Levee’). These earthen structures protect the low-lying areas from raging sea waters. A large percentage of Holland is actually below sea-level (One data-point suggests that it is 27%). Schipol International Airport in Amsterdam is the lowest (11 feet below MSL (mean sea level) ) international airport in the world. For the past many centuries, the Dutch have been reclaiming land from the North Sea.


Given the geography of Netherlands, canals are a very popular means of transportation. Like any modern European country, a vast network of expressways crisscross the land, but Canals continue to maintain their unique identity. These canals lead to many ‘opening bridges’ on roads and local highways. Inside Amsterdam, the canals create a complex network of transportation routes. A common legend about these canals in Central Amsterdam goes like this – most canals were originally 3 meter deep, but presently, their usable depth is only 2 meters. Reason? The huge number of old bicycles that have been thrown in there over, the past century 😉


A Canal In Central Amsterdam 



Tulip Country

Tulips are another classic attraction in Holland. I think this is especially the case amongst Indians – thanks to Bollwood. If one song caught the imagination of the Bollywood audience in the 1980s and created an everlasting impression of Tulips country – its ‘Dekha Ek Khaab …’ from Silsila (imdb link), staring Amitabh Bacchan and Rekha.

Tulips (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Tulips In Bloom (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Our hotel in Lisse was right in the middle of Tulip country.  It was surrounded by vast Tulip fields and bike trails that run through them. Only problem was that we were at absolute right place, but not at the right time ;). Tulip season is in April-May. All we saw were mostly ploughed fields and small sections of some other flowers that grow during this time of the year.

Central Amsterdam  

Central Amsterdam is beautiful. Canals, small streets, bicycle paths and footpaths blend in and coexist together. Old buildings (some over 400 year old) line these canals and streets. The Grand Central Railway Station building is quite imposing. Many refer to Amsterdam as a ‘walking city’. It’s not difficult to see why. The sheer number of people we saw in Central Amsterdam was huge. Yes, it was a weekend and the weather was nice – but still we heard from locals that this kind of crowd is not abnormal. If  you think Manhattan is crowded, you should see this place! Clearly comparable with some of the crowded cities in India!

The central part of Amsterdam has many tourist attractions – Shopping, Museums, The Famous Red-Light District Area, Canal Rides, name a few. I got an opportunity to see the Van Gogh Museum. I am not much of an art lover so its best that I don’t attempt to describe any of his famous works! Rembrandt Museum is also close by in the Museum District.

 Leaning House

I can recommend 3 good ways to checkout Central Amsterdam – I tried all of them. A canal cruise is a must as it takes you around the complex network of waterways around the city and gives you a nice close-up view of some of the great historical buildings. It was interesting to learn how all those old buildings are built on a 40 (or 60) wooden pillars foundation. Due to some structural problems that have arisen over the years (I must say the construction is good – since many have been around for 3 or more centuries!), a few buildings are tilted. (See the above photo of the famous ‘Tilting House’).

If you have extra time on hand, and the weather is good – walking is probably the best way to see the city. The third way is less exciting, but the most efficient. Just buy a 7 Euros daypass (I bought it at the Central Station Tourist Office – but I am sure it must be available elsewhere) and you can roam around Amsterdam on any of the Trams and Busses.

And finally some quirks

We found the Dutch people to be warm and friendly.

However, didn’t have a great experience when asking for directions 😉 On atleast 2 occasions, we were confidently sent on a wrong detour (that resulted in us driving around for over 1 hour..) to reach our hotel, that was just a few km away. And English was not the problem!

I know its typical European to have shops close in the evening, and remain closed on Sundays. But this still takes getting used to, if you are coming from U.S. or India. I always wonder what the locals do if there’s any emergency shopping need.

Amsterdam Grand Central Station has a Tourist Information Office. I got there at 10:30am, only to find a huge line outside. Turns out that this place only opens at 11am. There were many irritated tourists from all over the world here.

And a few closing comments

Netherlands is a great place to visit. Being a small country neighbouring U.K. and Germany – it has influences from both. English is more prevalent here compared to many other continental European Countries. It is also home to some leading multi-national companies such as Phillips, Royal-Dutch Shell, Unilever, ABN Amro,ING, etc.

I spent most of time in and around Amsterdam. I am sure the other cities like Rotterdam, Eindhoven will have their own sets of nice attractions. Netherlands is a great confluence of history and nature. Nice, green modern cities. Beautiful, quaint small towns. The landscape changes significantly as one drives East from Amsterdam towards the German Border. I didn’t get a chance to visit the Northern Netherlands – home of the famous Dutch Cheese.  Well, something for my next trip!

Driving In Europe – How It’s Different From U.S.

Posted in Cars, Travel by Amit Paranjape on September 26, 2009


 There are many more differences than just seeing cars cruise-by at 250 km/hr!

On continental Europe, they drive on the same side of the road as the United States. But the similarities really taper off from there! Recently, I had my first opportunity to drive in Europe, and it was a great experience. In this blog, I will highlight the contrasts between the two systems that are separated by much more than the Atlantic Ocean.

Readers who have extensive driving experience on both sides of the pond are welcome to add their own insights. For readers who haven’t driven in Europe, this article will be (hopefully!) an interesting guide, and an invitation to checkout this experience on your next trip. Note – my experiences are based on driving in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium.

Unless you are lucky enough to get a ‘company car’ in Europe – renting a car might be your best (and only) option. Car renting in Europe is quite expensive. But you can always look for bargains. Like in the U.S., renting a car in a suburb or a small town is significantly cheaper than renting at an Airport or in city center (‘zentrum’ or ‘centrum’ – as they call ‘downtown’). A manual transmission car is much cheaper than an automatic. A US driving license and a credit-card is typically all you need to rent, but many rental companies will also ask for your Passport as an ID Proof.

1. Where are the Pickup Trucks and SUVs?

The first thing you might notice is the near complete absence of pickup trucks! The SUVs are also significantly fewer in number. You will find a lot of station wagons. Clearly, the ‘drive’ towards reducing demand for oil, starts with vehicle ‘size’!

2. Better Driving Discipline – Fewer crazy drivers!

At first impression, the driving discipline definitely feels like it’s a notch higher than that in the U.S. Drivers seem to be more considerate when allowing lane changes, merge-ins, etc. Similarly, the fast lane is strictly used only for passing.

 3. Smaller cars

You feel like the entire class of automobiles got shrunk down by 1 or 2 sizes. The American compact car is a standard in Europe, an American medium sized car is a large car, and so on. Some of the cars are outright tiny – and smaller in size than the recently launched ‘Tata Nano’. On a related note (and quite interestingly, I may add..) – Toyota Prius was more common on European Roads than other iconic Toyota cars.

4. Better maintained cars

In general the cars seemed better maintained than in the US. Not sure if this is driven by necessity (wintery weather conditions, etc.) or by stricter enforcement (regular certification requirements).

5. Manual Transmission & Diesel Engines

These are again novelties to most American drivers. Both are quite popular given that they deliver better efficiencies (ultimately expressed as a lower cost per km) than the automatic transmission and gasoline counterparts.

6. Sheer variety of cars

My belief of U.S. being the global leader in variety of cars got corrected. The sheer variety of cars in Europe is huge! And the number of configurations available for a given model is also extensive. E.g. – Manual/Automatic, Gasoline (Benzin) / Diesel, etc. In addition to all the major global brands you commonly see in the U.S., there are quite a few other brands as well.

7. Speed limits

Contrary to prevailing belief amongst many – they do have strict speed limits on European highways. Even in Germany – 120 kmph (roughly equal-to 75 mph) is common on most highways, but they change to 100 kmph, 80 kmph, etc. based on road/traffic conditions. Many speed limits are ‘dynamic’ – they are indicated by electronic signs and change depending on the external conditions and time of the day. The adherence to the speed limits is fairly decent. There are only certain sections of Autobahns (away from urban centers) in Germany that have no speed limits.

8. Where are the cops?

In my 4 days of extensive driving, I swear I just saw one police car on the highway! That too was at a site of an accident. And yet, the speed limits enforcement and compliance is quite high. I guess they use cameras and technology a lot more in Europe, for traffic rules enforcement. If you are caught speeding, the ticket is mailed to you – complete with your picture driving the car, as proof.

9. 18 Wheelers

The 18 Wheelers are similar to what you would see in the US. Though, you see significantly fewer on the road. I guess there could be two primary reasons: 1. Europeans consume less stuff. Less stuff = Less Volume & Weight to ship! 2. They use a lot of rail transportation.

10. ‘Seamless Borders’

Crossing from one country to the other in the Schengen Region  is as seamless as crossing state boundaries in the U.S. or in India. Typically, there are just 1 or 2 signs welcoming you to that country and some changes in speed limits. That’s pretty much it – Plus the roads signs change from one language you cannot understand to a different one that you cannot understand either 🙂 But the graphical signs are self-explanatory.

11. Round-Abouts/Yield

When driving on city roads – a ’round-about’ circle is something that might confuse an American driver! It’s a different system of yielding – instead of a 4 way stop-sign.

12. Various kinds of ‘entities’ on the city roads

I can understand why Americans sometime dread driving in European cities!  In addition to the tiny roads – you have bicycles, pedestrians and trams to deal with! Amsterdam also has a few human powered bicycle taxis (And I thought Kolkatta was the only big city in the world to have them!).

For me personally (and others who regularly drive on Indian roads) I guess this ‘diverse traffic’ is not that bad 🙂

13. Bicycles lanes

Bicycles are omnipresent in Holland. They are also quite popular in other countries as well. On most city roads, bicycles have separate dedicated lanes. It’s quite interesting to see a few folks ‘bike’ from their home to a rail station – ‘fold’ their bikes (yes, some bikes literally fold in half – and can be stowed away easily..) board the train to the city, disembark and again ride to their office building!

Motorcycles are also more common, and they ‘optimize’ lane usage at traffic lights or in traffic jams by moving forward by the side of stuck 4 wheelers (the way they always do in India 🙂  ) . Initially I thought they were breaking the rules – but then it seemed like it was a ‘standard’ procedure.  

14. Gas Stations

The first time you pull into a Gas Station – be prepared for a sticker shock! Gasoline is currently priced around 1.40 Euros/liter. At the present exchange rate, that roughly translates to USD 7.60/Gallon. Diesel is a little cheaper at around 1.05 Euros/liter (USD 5.80/Gallon).  Add to this the price of a comparable car is approximately twice as much in the U.S. – and you will understand why driving is so expensive in Europe!

At Gas Stations in Europe you can literally fill ‘Gas’ ..LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas), that is 🙂 . Note in Germany and the Netherlands, they refer to Gasoline as ‘Benzin’. Instead of 3 varieties of gasoline and 1 variety of diesel – at European filling stations, you will typically find 2 varieties of gasoline, 2 varieties of diesel and LPG. Initially, I was confused to note the significantly higher octane rating numbers in Europe. However, that is apparently because of slightly different standards. (For more information, checkout: )

Reliance on Diesel and LPG is part of the drive towards reducing cost / km. LPG is significantly cheaper than Gasoline. Diesel typically yields a much better fuel efficieny in terms of km / liter.

15. Use of GPS and other electronic gadgets

The use of GPS based navigation has increased significantly over the past few years (as it has, in the U.S.) and old fashioned ‘paper’ map based navigation is a dying art. I however had to use this ‘old’ and tried and tested art form – since my cheap rental didn’t have a GPS.

Similarly, I understand that hands-free mobiles are mandatory – hence most cars have an integrated Bluetooth mobile integration with the car’s sound system.

In general, I also observed that for a similar model – an European car would typically have many other smaller gizmos – tire pressure monitoring, range calculators, etc.

Helpful links

Description of Autobahns from Wikipedia

A good site with lot of information (speed-limits, restrictions, etc.) about various Autobahns

(Image credits: Wikipedia)

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